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authorChloe Kudryavtsev <toast@toastin.space>2018-12-26 23:16:57 -0500
committerChloe Kudryavtsev <toast@toastin.space>2018-12-26 23:16:57 -0500
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parent86b2cbbf094f80b2543ee07b8b8d45aaa71bdeeb (diff)
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+= Post Installation Recommendations
+Now that your installation of Alpine Linux is up and running, you can start working with it.
+The following sections will provide a list of general recommendations to ease your interactive experience - they are all optional.
+The remaining sections will describe how to use (on a user level) various Alpine-native solutions, such as the package manager, firewall, and so on.
+== Creating a Normal User
+Now that you are up and running, you will want a normal, non-root user to perform most daily tasks with.
+You can either use the built-in busybox utility `adduser`, or the utility available in the `shadow` package named `useradd`.
+Here are examples for creating a user (named "john" and "jane" respectively) using the utilities `adduser` and `useradd` respectively.
+[source, sh]
+adduser -h /home/john -s /bin/ash john <1>
+<1> Both the `-h /home/john` and `-s /bin/ash` sections may be optional. However, it is recommended to specify both, as the defaults may not be desirable.
+[source, sh]
+useradd -m -U -s /bin/ash jane <1>
+<1> The options are, as in the previous example, optional. However, they are still highly recommended, as shown.
+Once your user has been created, if the utility you used has not asked you to set a password, you should do so now, using `passwd foo`, where "foo" is the username in question.
+== Granting Your User Administrative Access
+Sometimes, you'll want to do something that *does* require administrative powers.
+While you may switch to a different tty and log in as root, this is often inconvenient.
+You may gain root privileges ad-hoc using either the built-in busybox utility `su`, or the common external utility `sudo`, available in the package named the same way.
+// TODO: verify that `su` truly does not require any special group.
+`sudo`, unlike `su`, will require additional configuration.
+The `visudo` utility that comes with it allows you to safely edit the `sudoers` file which configures it.
+The difference between `sudo` and `su` comes down to which side the permissions come from - `su` allows you to temporarily log-in as another user (and thus requires that you enter the password of the user you wish to log in as), while `sudo` allows you to perform commands (including login shells) as the target user, assuming the configuration gives you that right (meaning that your password is the one used for authentication).
+Here are examples on how to use `su`, and how to configure *and* use `sudo` (in a shortened form) respectively:
+[source, sh]
+su -l root <1>
+su - <2>
+<1> `-l` means to run a login shell.
+<2> A mere `-` implies `-l`, and if no user is mentioned, root is implied - this is equivalent to the example in <1>
+[source, sh]
+apk add sudo <1>
+echo '%wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL' > /etc/sudoers.d/wheel <2>
+adduser joe wheel <3>
+sudo -i <4>
+<1> Sudo is not installed by default.
+<2> By default, `sudo` only provides permissions to root. This translates as "people in the group `wheel` are allowed to perform any command, as any user, and any group."
+<3> The wheel group mentioned above is the common "administrator" group, and since we're using it, we need to add our user to said group.
+<4> You may need to log out and log back in for the group listing to update. `sudo -i` is the equivalent of `su -` otherwise.